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History -----------------------------01
Catalogue -------------------------02
Photo Gallery ---------------------03
Textile Industries ---------------04
Activities ---------------------------05
Surat -------------------------------06
  Textile Industries
  Financial Institution
  Other Information
  Identification of Yarns
  Eligible Machinery
  Identify Defects
  Identification Of Yarns
Fabic Defect
Principal Causes
1. Abrasion mark    
    (Chafe Mark)
An area where the fabric has been demaged by friction
Sharp and rough surface in contact
2. Baggy cloth
    (Wavy cloth)
A cloth that will not tie flat on Plain surface
Section of tight or loose yearns
either in warp or weft
   (Filling Band)
Astripe effect where or more picks are characterised by
apparent difference in clour. Lustre of Physical arrangement at intervals across the warp
Mechanical fault in loom-let-off
match working improperly. Pickwheel Wheel missing. Tigir or worm bearings in take up motion loose beam heads Warp beam or Whiproll not true. Beam gudgeons bent. Variations in Lustre of dye absorption.
4.Broken Pick
  (Missing Pick)
A Pick Missing the portion of cloth
Cut shuttle eyes or tension rings or pins. Sharp centre-fork Prongs, Sharp feeler tip, rough boxes. Top shuttle riding over filling of bottom shuttle. Rough shuttles. Shuttle not entering boxes straight poor quilling. Quil loose in shutle. Quil not centered in shuttle rough Pickets etc,
5.Clip Mark
   (Pin Mark)
Enlarged in holes tears or shift marks along the edge
of these fabric.
unduly stained fabric at the point
where the pin or clip has held the Fabric on the stenter frame.
6. Crack
   (Broken weave)
An open streak of variable
length parallel with the wrap of weft
Mehchanical defect in loom such
case Crankarm bearings, bad
grabbing promtly. Loom banging
off too much warpwise play iq read improper let-off reeddent bent other by rough handling by weaver while drawing-in-end only a shuttle the reed at an angle, tight reed can.
7. Crease(Wrinkle)
A break or line in a fabric
By a sharp fold.
8. End out
   (Broken and)
A void caused by a missing end.
Broken filament (Fuzz Balls). Thick Portions in yarn. Big knots, less strength, wrong denting.
9. Filling Bar
   (Stop mark)
A filling band or bar either across the full width of the doth or portion of it containing picks of large diameter than normally being used in the fabric or containing more than the normal number of picks.
Mixed filling yarn. Mechanical
failure of loom, incorrect setting of pick wheel by weaver when starting Up loom after stop for several hours of after defective filling yarns had been removed.
10. Finger mark
   (pressure mark)
An irregular spot showing
variation in picks/inch a
limited width.
Spseadling of warp ends while loom, is in motion, Pressure upon cloth between reed and take-up drum.
11 Float
A place in the fabric where warp or weft yarn extends unbound
over the ends with which it should be inter-laced.
Ends breaking-out unclean warp or tarness.
12. Fuzzy (Marly)
A fabric condition characterized
by a hairy appearance due to
broken filaments.
Rough drop wires, heddles or reed warp rides lay blassrod back is cut, reed is cut fabric slips on take-up drum, rough shuttles.
13. Gout
Foreign matter moven in a fabric
by accident usually lint or waste.
Fly and waste dropping into the loom during weaving or being caught in yarns cuting spining.
Fabric Defect
Principal Causes
14.Hang Pick
   (Hang shot)
A pick, caught on a warp yarn
knot for a short distance producing
Incorrectly, tied knot, harness time to early shuttle tension too lose.
15. Kink
A place in the fabric where a short
length of yarn has sponteneously
double back on itself.
Lively yarn, due to excessive twist, or low R.H. tension on yarn coming from shuttle not uniform, centre fork not set right.
16.Mis Pick
   (Double pick)
A pick not properly interlaced a
break in the weave pattern.
Starting loom incorrect pick after pick-out loom turned backward before starting
17. Mixed End & Mixed filling
Warp & Weft yarn differing from
that normally being used in the
fabric such as from wrong yarn lot.
Carelessness at yarn suppliers or workers or supervisor's level.
18. Pulled-filling
An extra thread dragged into
shed with regular pick and
extending only a part of teh
way across the cloth.
Poor cleanliness surounding the loom.
19. Reed Mark
   (Reedy Warp)
Cracks between warp and
grops continuous or at intervals.
Crowded dents, open dents,
improper wrap tension.
20. Rough
A fabric condition in which the
surface resembles sand paper.
Shuttle rebounding in box, shuttle tension jerky or too loose. harnessed not timed correctly, wild twist in weft.
21. Shiner
A relatively short steak caused
by lustrous section of a filament yam.
Excessive tension applied to a yam dring its processing
22. Shuttle Mark
   (Box Mark)
A fine line parallel with the filling.
due to injury of a group of filling
yearns by the shuttle.
Shuttle not flying straight, bottom, shed too high, shed openning too low, shuttle entering too early or too late.
23.Slack Pick
   (Loose Pick)
A single filling yarn woven under
insufficient tension.
Insuffcient tension to a filling while inserting into fabric.
A relatively large hole in the cloth
characterized by many broken warp
ends and floating picks.
Breaking of one for both harness straps, permitting the harness to drop and dreak out warp ends. Shuttle trapped in the shed during beating.

A distortion in the weave
charactrized by tight and
slack places.

Warp ends restrict by broken
filament slubs or knots catching at lease rods, drop wires heddles, reeds
or rolled ends.
26.Tear Drop
A fabric condition characterized by
short elliptical deveiations of one or
more adjoining picks. Which are
generally pronounced in taffetas.
Insuffcient warp tension, incorrect harness timing. Over-sized warp, uneven penetration sizing solution.
27.Tight pick
   (Statehed fillings)
One or more picks woven under
abnormally tight tension producing a fabric condition appearing as a wavy or ruffled surfaced.
Fur in shuttle sticking out where the filling might catch on it, rough spots or quills or cops large knots tied in yarn, yarn ballooning too much as
it comes off quill. Yarn not set properly, long tails along the edge of cloth after a shuttle change catching on some gear. Knoves not
sharp (Auto looms).
A puckerred in a crepe fabric
where the Crepe filling yarn has
the twist running in same direction for several picks instead of alternation "S" & "2" twist.
Yarn is sent across the loom several times instead of making only on round trip across the loom before
changing to bobbin of other twist.
29. Warp Steaks
Narrow bands running warpwise
and characterized by apparent
difference in colour from
adjoining ends.
Ends hearing different dyeing
affinities, incorrect seting of
sections in warping, rough heddles, or drop wires, sharp or cut section on lease reed of warpern.
30: Wrong Draw
A place where one or more ends
have been incorrectly drawn
inharness or reed.
Carelessness at worker's and supervisor's levels.
History --------------------01 Photo Gallery -------------------03 Activities -------------------05
Catalogue ----------------02 Textile Industries --------------04 Surat -----------------------06
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